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DEHUHANIZATION                        6l

III

Both Russian Communism and Fascism, as
modem phenomena are by-products, after-effects
of the war. Fascism, besides being a war-baby,
is also a reaction against Communism, and its
emotional bases are less positive and creative
than negative and reactionary. German Fascism,
National-Socialism, was born of the misfortunes
and deprivations of the German people. Both
Communism and Fascism, much alike in their
social morphology, justly protest against the
degeneration of formal liberty which means
scepticism, unbelief and indifference to the truth.
But instead of proceeding to the true freedom
of man, as an integral being, a spiritual nature,
as producer and citizen, they proceed to both
formal and actual denial of liberty. From the
oppression of human personality in a capitalist
economy or the a-personalism and inhumanity of
the war or of the state, they proceed to the
unification of the same oppression and extend
it over the whole race. This is merely a con-
tinuation of the same process of dehumanization
and depersonalization which has been noted
above. Freedom and personality are denied,
not in some special ccbourgeois" sense, as is
so often claimed by modern demagogues, but
in their eternal, spiritual sense* Man is being